Occupational Therapy Applications
Occupational therapy is a person-centered treatment method that aims to improve health and well-being with meaningful and purposeful activities. The aim is to enable the person to participate in daily life activities.
Occupational therapy is a treatment model applied to people who cannot be alone in daily life or who want to be more active. Ergo means “job”.
Occupational therapists use meaningful and purposeful activities as treatment models. People learn actively through trial and error. When the human brain decides to make a movement, it must deliver the message to the muscles and nerves. In order for the person to receive, apply and learn this message in the best way, the action resulting from the message must be done and applied correctly. This is where occupational therapists practice and teach the activity practically, and thus create the most appropriate learning style in the brain.
What are Occupational Therapy Practices?
Occupational therapy plays a role in the treatment of mental (mental), social or physical abilities as a result of any illness, accident, birth-related pathology or aging.
An ergonomic life is tried to be provided so that the individual can repeat daily life activities (such as bathing, eating, brushing teeth, dressing, etc.), gain independence in this regard and maintain their status at the highest level. The occupational therapist offers techniques and tools that allow the person to adapt to life. They teach to use them and help by accompanying them.
The occupational therapist, by providing activity to the individual, plays a role in reintegration and adaptation to the society. For this purpose, they implement various rehabilitation programs (social, artistic, vocational, etc.) individually or as a group. They identify the necessary tools, methods and materials to gain independence in daily life and teach their use.
The occupational therapist evaluates the limitations of physically and mentally disabled individuals and plans what these people can do in daily life. With the plan made, it is intended for those disabled people to achieve the highest level of performance in their home, work, school etc. All of these are factors that contribute significantly to the physical, psychic and emotional development of people.
What are the Goals of Occupational Therapy?
- A disabled individual can go somewhere independently, the individual can be liberated,
- For example, supporting patients in daily events, such as enabling individuals who have difficulty eating, to eat more comfortably,
- Choosing a special activity for that person to prevent the disease from progressing in Alzheimer’s,
- Repairing, strengthening and increasing the missing performance,
- Facilitating the learning of functions required for adaptation and productivity,
- Reduction or correction of existing pathology
- Many goals can be listed, such as encouraging and maintaining a state of well-being, which are in much life that we cannot count here.
Who is Occupational Therapy Applied to?
In order to increase the independence of people who have lost some functions due to injury or illness in daily life activities (skills such as dressing, self-care, movement and eating), it is necessary to teach and be accompanied by the application of some special methods. (For example; methods for transition from bed to wheelchair, activity training with one hand method, etc.) Occupational therapy will come into play here.
- Training of self-help tools and the use of these tools for the same purpose, (for example; forks, knives with modified handles for people who do not have grip, body balance and long-handled handle for a person without the ability to reach out, wheelchair and car adaptations, etc.),
- Job adaptation programs to improve working capacity, vocational rehabilitation studies for disabled people, and job coaching programs,
- Preventive and early intervention programs, development of community health and quality of life programs (providing trainings for the prevention of waist and neck health and occupational injuries in workplaces, teaching activity-resting principles, providing stress control programs and relaxation training, implementation of school programs)
- Home rehabilitation and home arrangements (for example; the resettlement of items that prevent falling, safe and independent life for the elderly and the disabled, the installation of grab bars in bathrooms, toilets and other rooms, ramps and other architectural arrangements for wheelchair users.)
- Providing special occupational therapy training and environmental arrangements to ensure independence for the visually impaired and people with low vision.
- Functional development and application of social approaches in various disorders such as autism, cerebral palsy, dyslexia, down syndrome, microcephaly, muscle diseases, stroke, mental retardation, orthopedic injuries.
- Application of specific treatment approaches for cognitive and physical functions in neurological disorders.
- Work and occupation activities that improve independence in daily life activities in psychiatric disorders and provide social participation.
- Use of activity training models for disabled, elderly and other marginalized people and groups.
Which Methods Are Used in Occupational Therapy?
According to the needs of the child, treatment methods should be applied alone or as programs that complement each other.
- Sensory integration therapy
- Sensory motor stimulation approach
- Perception motor approaches
- Game Therapy
- Cognitive rehabilitation
- Daily life activities
- Neurodevelopmental treatment approaches
- Cognitive behavioral therapy
- Creative approaches
- Psychosocial approaches
- Biomechanical approaches